These communities are endogamous and some have secret languages. They speak a Persian dialect known as Dari. The Tajik form the second largest ethnic group in Afghanistan.  Hazaras tend to be mostly concentrated in the wider "Hazarajat" region of central Afghanistan, while Uzbeks are mostly populated in the north. They were only able to rule and at the same time legitimize their rule as second- or even as immediate sub-rulers with some significant influence on the foreigners – with the exception of the short 10-month rule of Habibullah Kalakani in 1929. By the 16th century the Uzbeks had settled throughout Central Asia and reached Afghanistan following the conquests of Muhammad Shaybani.  Some places are very diverse: the city of Kabul for example has been considered a "melting pot" where large populations of the major ethnic groups reside, albeit traditionally with a distinct "Kabuli" identity. They are between 6 to 7 million.. Ethnic groups in the north, under Masood’s Northern Alliance, and the south, aided in part by Hamid Karzai, continue to battle the Taliban for control of the country. By Benjamin Elisha Sawe on September 10 2019 in Society. Most likely the Uzbeks migrated with a wave of Turkic invaders and intermingled with local Iranian tribes over time to become the ethnic group they are today. Afghanistan’s beautiful architecture is seen in their mosques and homes. In Afghanistan, there are several ethnic and linguistic groups and also there are several Islamic sects who live in this country and they are organized in a hierarchical structure in the society. Others live in rural areas, particularly in Badakhshan, and engage in agriculture. Abdul Karim Brahui Governor of Nimruz Province, is an ethnic Baloch. "Article Four of the Constitution of Afghanistan", "ABC NEWS/BBC/ARD poll - Afghanistan: Where Things Stand", "People and Society :: 33,332,025 (2016 est. While national culture of Afghanistan is not uniform, at the same time, the various ethnic groups have no clear boundaries between each other and there is much overlap. Decorative carvings on stone can be seen in Tajik homes. Many Afghans are bilingual. M. "Afghan". Still, there are generally certain regions where one of the ethnic groups tend to dominate the population. , The Baloch people are speakers of the Balochi language who are mostly found in and around the Balochistan region of Afghanistan. Tajik: Деҳқон, romanized: Dehqon, literally "farmer or settled villager", in a wider sense "settled" in contrast to "nomadic"). The population of the country consists of numerous ethnolinguistic groups: Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek, Aimaq, Turkmen, Baloch, Pashai, Nuristani, Gujjar, Arab, Brahui, Qizilbash, Pamiri, Kyrgyz, and others. Pashtun is an ethnic group predominant in Afghanistan and Pakistan characterized as warriors. Pashtuns are traditionally nomadic pastoralists who move from place to place in search of grazing land. Origin and rule. According to other sources, some Pashtuns may be the Lost tribes of Israel who converted to Islam during the Arab Empire. , The Hazaras are the third largest ethnic group in Afghanistan. The Afghan National Anthem and the Afghan Constitution each mention fourteen of them, though the lists are not exactly the same. Pashtuns are predominantly Muslim. Afghanistan's population is divided into several ethnolinguistic groups. They make up close to 10% percent of the Afghanistan population. Other major ethnic groups in Afghanistan include Turkmen (3%) and Balochi (Baluch) (2%). A variety of ancient groups with eponyms similar to Pukhtun have been hypothesized as possible ancestors of modern Pashtuns. The Pashtuns are the largest ethnic group in Afghanistan, comprising 42 percent of the population. Pashtunwali code defines the culture of the Pa… Interestingly, Aimaq women are not as restricted as other women in rural Afghanistan. They are Sunni Muslims, and their origins are very similar to that of the Uzbeks. The ethnicities are represented on the table on the right.  Additionally, ethnic groups are not racially homogenous. The name became the national identity of Afghanistan in modern times.  An additional 3 million or so Afghans are temporarily housed in neighboring Pakistan and Iran, most of whom were born and raised in those two countries. Islam has a significant influence on the Pashtun culture such as their clothing. The Karzai administration, which is led by Hamid Karzai, is dominated by Pashtun ministers.. Generally the four major ethnic groups … From the founding of the Durrani regime in the late 1800s, to the 1978 Ghilzai-led Democratic Republic of Afghanistan, it has dominated Afghan politics. Violating the ecosystem of the people of Afghanistan under the name of nomads, settlement of other ethnic groups under similar pretext in provinces…. Some notable Pashtuns of Afghanistan include: Hamid Karzai, Ashraf Ghani, Nazo Tokhi, Wazir Akbar Khan, Malalai of Maiwand, Abdul Ahad Momand, Zalmay Khalilzad, the Afghan Girl, Hedayat Amin Arsala, Abdul Rahim Wardak, Sher Mohammad Karimi, Abdul Salam Azimi, Zalmai Rassoul, Omar Zakhilwal, Ghulam Farooq Wardak, Anwar ul-Haq Ahady, Daud Shah Saba, Mohammad Gulab Mangal, Gul Agha Sherzai, Asadullah Khalid, Mohammad Hanif Atmar, Mohammad Ishaq Aloko, Mohammed Omar, Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, Ahmad Zahir, Nashenas, Ubaidullah Jan, Naghma, Farhad Darya, Suhaila Seddiqi, Shukria Barakzai, Fauzia Gailani, the Hotakis, Durranis, Nashers, and Karzais. Afghanistan has around 29.8 million people as of the year 2011. Some notable Tajiks from Afghanistan include: Habibullah Kalakani, Burhanuddin Rabbani, Ahmad Shah Massoud, Ahmad Zia Massoud, Mohammed Fahim, Yunus Qanuni, Ismail Khan, Bismillah Khan Mohammadi, Atta Muhammad Nur, Amrullah Saleh, Wasef Bakhtari, Abdul Latif Pedram, Massouda Jalal, Baz Mohammad Ahmadi, Mohammed Daud Daud, Abdul Basir Salangi, and Fawzia Koofi. About 2.7 million Afghan refugees are living in Pakistan and Iran.. In the 1990s their number figure was put at 100,000 but they are around 200,000 today. , World Factbook / Library of Congress Country Studies (pre-2004 estimates), "Afghanistan: Where Things Stand" (2004–2009). There are others which do not belong to any of these aforementioned ethic groups, and collectively they make up 5% of the total population in the country. They use proverbs and common sayings in their daily conversation. The groups listed below are not included in overall Joshua Project people group counts. The Turkmens are a smaller Turkic-speaking ethnic group in Afghanistan. Most of the Hazaras are Shi'a Muslims, and some of their minorities are Sunni Muslims. The Hazaras (Persian: هزاره, Hazāra; Hazaragi: آزره) are a Persian-speaking ethnic group native to, and primarily residing in, the mountainous region of Hazarajat, in central Afghanistan. The border was established in 1893 via an agreement between Abdur Rahman Khan, the emir (or ruler) of Afghanistan, and Sir Mortimer Durand, foreign secretary of the British Raj.  Population estimates vary widely, from less than 500,000 to around 800,000. Hazara. It therefore enjoys a mixture of cultures borrowed from Europe, Eastern and Western Asia. , There are conflicting theories about the origin of the Pashtun people, both among historians and the Pashtun themselves. Afghan Tajik live mainly in the Panjsher Valley north of Kabul and in the northern and northeastern provinces of Parwan, Takhar, Badakhshan, and … They are easily recognized form other Afghans by their Pashto language and their unique way of living called Pashtinwali.  The city of Mazar-e-Sharif is 60% Tajik, the city of Kabul is approximately 45% and the city of Ghazni 50%.  As a self-designation, the term Tajik, which earlier on had been more or less pejorative, has become acceptable only during the last several decades, particularly as a result of Soviet administration in Central Asia. These beautiful patterns are also found on their carpets, wall hangings and head pieces. Tajiks' meals range from sweet dishes such as Halwa to savory ones such as Pulao (spiced rice). note: current statistical data on the sensitive subject of ethnicity in Afghanistan are not available, and ethnicity data from small samples of respondents to opinion polls are not a reliable alternative; Afghanistan's 2004 constitution recognizes 14 ethnic groups: Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek, Baloch, Turkmen, Nuristani, Pamiri, Arab, Gujar, Brahui, Qizilbash, Aimaq, and Pashai The percentages given are estimates only, as accurate and current statistical data on ethnicity are not available. Uzbeks form the largest Turkic group in Afghanistan, and they constitute 9% of the total population in the country.  Uzbeks living in Afghanistan were estimated in the 1990s at approximately 1.3 million but are now believed to be 2 million.. Aimaq, meaning "tribe" in Turkic-Mongolic (Oymaq), is not an ethnic denomination, but differentiates semi-nomadic herders and agricultural tribal groups of various ethnic origins including the Hazara, Tajik and Baluch, that were formed in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. They live among non-tribal people in the western areas of Badghis, Ghor and Herat provinces. The women wear long dresses and cover their heads. Its capital and largest city is Kabul. Men wear loose-fitting shirts that are of knee length and trousers tied to the waist with string. An approximate distribution of the ethnic groups is shown in the chart below: The recent estimate in the above chart is supported by the below recent national opinion polls, which were aimed at knowing how a group of about 804 to 13,943 local residents in Afghanistan felt about the current war, political situation, as well as the economic and social issues affecting their daily lives. Tea is an integral beverage in their homes. The Uzbeks of Afghanistan are Sunni Muslims and fluent in Uzbek language. is between the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan and the Indus River in neighboring Pakistan, where they are the second largest ethnic group. The Aimaq are a group of Persian-speaking nomadic tribes, and they constitute 4% of the total population in the country. The country is located along historic trade routes, and those used by militaries during invasions, between Eastern Asia and Western Asia. Tajiks form the second largest ethnic group in Afghanistan. Tajiks are famous for their elaborate embroideries on fabric. Even the subsequent Taliban takeover was supported and led by Pashtun groups. This makes the total Afghan population at around 33,332,025, and its current growth rate is 2.34%. , The term "Afghan" is synonymous with the ethnonym "Pashtun" and has been mentioned as early as the 3rd century, referring to the tribes inhabiting the lands south of the Hindu Kush around the Sulaiman Mountains. Richard S. Newell "Post-Soviet Afghanistan: The Position of the Minorities".  It was used to refer to a common legendary ancestor known as "Afghana", propagated to be grandson of King Saul of Israel. What is most remarkable in the study of Afghanistan’s ethnic groups is the disparity in who gets studied and who does not. , The Pashtuns (ethnic Afghans) make up the largest ethnic group in Afghanistan, comprising between 38% and 42% of the country's population. Some of the ethnic groups of the Afghanistan are Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek, Aimak, Turkmen, Baloch, Pashai and many more.  During the late 19th century and early 20th century, large number of Central Asian Tajiks fled the conquest of their native homeland by Russian Red Army and settled in northern Afghanistan.. The governors of Nimruz province in Afghanistan belong to the Baloch ethnic group. Afghanistan is a loosily knit conglomeration of number of ethnic groups, chief of whom are Pashtuns, Tajiks, Uzbeks and Hazaras. , The Uzbeks are the main Turkic people of Afghanistan whose native territory is in the northern regions of the country. Estimates in 1995 averaged around 4.3 million. They practice Sunni Islam and follow the Hanafi school of thought. The Greek historian Herodotus mentioned a people called Pactyans, living in the Achaemenid's Arachosia Satrap as early as the 1st millennium BC. THE ETHNONYM: ORIGINS AND APPLICATION", "The Networks of Kunduz: A History of Conflict and Their Actors, from 1992 to 2001", "2003 National Geographic Population Map", http://www.understandingwar.org/tajikistan-and-afghanistan, https://repository.upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1012&context=senior_seminar, https://info.publicintelligence.net/MCIA-AfghanCultures/Uzbeks.pdf, https://abcnews.go.com/International/story?id=80419&page=1, "Afghan Population 29.2 Million - Pajhwok Afghan News", "Senators stress caution in ID cards issuance", "Ethnic groups: Pashtun 42%, Tajik 27%, Hazara 9%, Uzbek 9%, Aimak 4%, Turkmen 3%, Baloch 2%, other 4%", "Afghanistan in 2018 – A survey of the Afghan people", "Afghanistan in 2012 – A survey of the Afghan people", "Afghanistan in 2010 – A survey of the Afghan people", "Afghanistan in 2009: A Survey of the Afghan People", "Afghanistan in 2007 – A survey of the Afghan people", "Afghanistan in 2006 – A survey of the Afghan people", "Afghanistan in 2004 – A survey of the Afghan people", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ethnic_groups_in_Afghanistan&oldid=993741529, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2014, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from December 2014, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 12 December 2020, at 06:25.  They are a native Persian-speaking people.  Their main territory, sometimes called Pashtunistan,[by whom?] The Hazara is the third largest ethnic group in Afghanistan. , The modern Afghan national identity developed in the mid 18th century under the rule of Ahmad Shah Durrani, who united all the tribes and formed the last Afghan empire.  Some believe that ethnic Afghan is an adaptation of the Prakrit ethnonym Avagana, attested in the 6th century CE. They are also known as Afghans and the name ‘Afghanistan’ translates to ‘land of the Afghans’, equally meaning ‘land of the Pashtuns’. Some may not be viable and/or have incorrect Progress Scale values, population, language and religion information. Pashtuns are the largest ethnic group in Afghanistan, comprising nearly half of the country’s estimated 30 million people, while Hazaras make up some 10 percent of the population and have been persecuted historically. Afghanistan is a multiethnic and mostly-tribal society. , Tajiks are the major ethnic group in neighboring Tajikistan, a country that was created north of Afghanistan in 1991. It became prominent during the Khalji, Lodi, and Suri dynasties of Northern India. Al-Biruni referred to a group of Afghans in the 11th century as various tribes living on the western frontier mountains of Ancient India and Persia, which would be the area between the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan and the Indus River in what is now Pakistan. Like a number of other Afghan ethnic groups, the Pushtun extend beyond Afghanistan into Pakistan where they constitute a major ethnic group of about 14 million. There has been a debate as to who qualifies to be Pashtun but the widely agreed view is that Pashtuns are Eastern Iranian people who speak Pashto as their first language. Jump to navigation Jump to search. A great example of an ethnic group overrepresented in the scholarly literature is the Nuristanis (who are more accurately a group of people speaking a variety of Nuristani languages and with varying cultures who often get lumped together). Ethnic groups  Many are known to be in the Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF) while some in the major cities are bureaucrats, doctors, teachers, professors, traders, and shopkeepers. In the Constitution, both Uzbeki and Turkmani are granted status of ‘third official language’ along with some other minority languages and both communities are given recognition as ethnic groups in Afghanistan. On this map, both the Baloch and Pashtun ethnolinguistic groups straddle the 2640-kilometer (1640-mile) border between Afghanistan and Pakistan, known as the Durand Line. According to a US State Department report released in 2009, Tajiks are 98% Sunni Muslims. , The population of Afghanistan was estimated in 2017 at 29.2 million.  Physically, the Nuristani are of the Mediterranean sub-stock with about one-third recessive blondism. They speak a variety of Nuristani languages. The official languages in Afghanistan are Pashto and Dari. Some notable Uzbeks of Afghanistan include: Abdul Rashid Dostum, Husn Banu Ghazanfar, Abdul Rauf Ibrahimi, Muhammad Yunus Nawandish, Sherkhan Farnood, Abdul Malik Pahlawan and Rasul Pahlawan. For example, Nauruz is a New Year festival celebrated by various ethnic groups in Afghanistan. All maps, graphics, flags, photos and original descriptions © 2020 worldatlas.com, Largest Ethnic Groups And Nationalities In The United States, Demographics and Ethnic Groups of Australia, Types Of Crimes By Number Of Offenses In The US. It therefore enjoys a mixture of cultures borrowed from Europe, Eastern and Western Asia. Better known historically as the Kafirs of what was once known as Kafiristan (land of pagans), they converted to Islam during the rule of Amir Abdur Rahman and their country was renamed "Nuristan", meaning "Land of Light" (as in the light of Islam). Tajiks are believed to have Iranian origins, and are also referred to as Farsi. The Nuristani are an Indo-Iranian people, representing a third independent branch of the Aryan peoples (Indo-Aryan, Iranian and Nuristani), who live in isolated regions of northeastern Afghanistan as well as across the border in the district of Chitral in Pakistan. Ordinary Pashtuns, Hazaras, Tajiks and Uzbeks, among others, share their views on politics, stage protests and partake in civil society.  They reside mainly in the Hazarajat region in central Afghanistan. They speak the Hazaragi dialect of Persian which is mutually intelligible with Dari, one of the two official languages of Afghanistan. Secondly, each Jat group specializes in a particular activity, for example the Ghorbat of western Afghanistan are sieve makers, shoe repairers and animal traders, while the Shadibaz peddle cloth, bangles and haberdashery. Pashtuns make up an estimated 42% of the population of contemporary Afghanistan. In Afghanistan, Tajiks are the majority in the city of Herat. Most Tajiks in Afghanistan are practicing Sunni Muslims, like the Pashtun.  Alternative names for the Tajiks are Fārsī (Persian), Fārsīwān (Persian-speaker), and Dīhgān (cf. Of the major ethicities, the geographic distribution can be varied. Contributor Names [United States. Pashtun make up the largest ethnic group in Afghanistan, followed by Tajiks, Hazara, Uzbek, Aimaks, Baloch, and others. Pashtuns are overwhelmingly Sunni with the exception of the Pashtun Turi tribe who are Shi’a. About 22% of them are urbanite and the remaining 78% live in rural areas. Afghanistan is a country in Central Asia. The struggles of other ethnic groups for political power in Afghanistan – such …  Tajiks are highly concentrated in the north-east, but also form large communities elsewhere such as in western Afghanistan. Many Nuristanis believe that they are the descendants of Alexander the Great's ancient Greeks, but there is a lack of genetic evidence for this and they are more than likely an isolated pocket of early Aryan invaders. They practice subsistence farming and also keep livestock.  Despite being of various ethnic groups, in a research poll that was conducted in 2009, 72% of the population labelled their identity as Afghan first, before ethnicity.. Pashtun cuisine is popular for its use of dried fruits. They use proverbs and common sayings in their daily conversation. The formation of the state of Afghanistan was due to an expansion of Persian tribes. The population in the 1990s was estimated at 125,000 by some; the Nuristani prefer a figure of 300,000. , According to scholars such as V. Minorsky and others, the name Afghan appears in the 982 CE Hudud-al-Alam geography book. Ethnic groups in Afghanistan. They are the second largest ethnic group in Afghanistan, making up an estimated 27% of the nation’s population. Many Afghans are bilingual. These ethnic groups of Afghanistan have their own way of living, defined by unwritten code. Hazaras and other ethnic groups are now at least free to dream of a career of their choice. Media in category "Ethnic groups in Afghanistan" The following 4 files are in this category, out of 4 total. The country is located along historic trade routes, and those used by militaries during invasions, between Eastern Asia and Western Asia. , Like the rest of the ethnic groups in Afghanistan, the origin of Tajiks is a mystery. They are forbidden from eating pork or indulging in alcoholic drinks. Traditionally, a Pashtun must be a Muslim and adhere to Pashtunwali code thus only those with Pashtun fathers qualify also to be a Pashtun. The Pashtuns are the largest ethnic group of Afghanistan constituting between 40% to 50% of the total population of the country. Afghanistan.  Mainly pastoral and desert dwellers, the Baloch people of Afghanistan are predominantly Sunni Muslims. Unlike the Uzbeks, however, the Turkmens are traditionally a nomadic people (though they were forced to abandon this way of life in Turkmenistan itself under Soviet rule).  Pashtuns are the traditional rulers of Afghanistan since the rise of the Hotaki dynasty in 1709 or more specifically when the Durrani Empire was created in 1747. After the rise of the Hotaki dynasty in 1709 and the Durrani Empire in 1747, Pashtuns expanded by forming communities north of the Hindu Kush and elsewhere in Afghanistan. The population of the country is divided into the following ethnolinguistic groups: Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek, Aimaq, Turkmen, Baloch, Pashai, Nuristani, Gujjar, Arab, Brahui, Pamiri, Kyrgyz and few others. 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