The scientific name of this species is Euonymus europaeus, which is said by some to be derived from 'Euonyme', the mother of the Furies, a reference to the poisonous nature of this tree. By the Italians it is still called Fusano. The strong tree framework and canopy architecture averts wind damage and protects the tree thus reducing the fruit drop and bruises. The leaves are opposite (rarely alternate) and simple ovoid, typically 2â15 cm long, and usually with a finely serrated margin. It is a deciduous shrub or small tree. Strategies to Improve Early Growth And Yield of Tall Spindle Apple Plantings (2015 Fruit Quarterly v. 23-2); Sunlight, Yield, and Productivity of Apples (2014 Fruit Quarterly v. 22-2); Measuring and Extending the Benefits of Orchard Mechanization in High Density Orchards in Western NY (2015 Fruit Quarterly v. 23-2); Making Apple Trees Friendlier for Mechanized Harvesting (2016 Fruit â¦ It is known for the brilliantly colored foliage and fruits that appear in the autumn. The original spacing recommended was 10 feet (3m) and 435 trees per acre. The seed coating is used to create a yellow dye and charcoal obtained from the wood is prized by artists. The bark and twigs are deep green, becoming darker with age, and have light brown, corky markings. The Spindle Tree is a delightful small bushy tree known for its leaves that turn a spectacular red in autumn. Download this stock image: spindle tree; fruit; - XACFX8 from Alamy's library of millions of high resolution stock photos, illustrations and vectors. In the fall, the leaves turn yellow-green to red-purple. Marvelous carmine pink fruits open to reveal orange seed pods. Euonymus europaeus, the spindle, European spindle, or common spindle, is a species of flowering plant in the family Celastraceae, native to much of Europe, where it inhabits the edges of forest, hedges and gentle slopes, tending to thrive on nutrient-rich, chalky and salt-poor soils. It is native throughout Europe and into the western regions of Asia and has been cultivated in North America where it has thrived to the point of becoming an invasive species in some areas. Bi-axis Slender spindle Superspindle/vertical axis Tatura trellis or V system Vertical Axis Central leader (older) Pear Systems. Go to list of cultivars. Precocious bearing can be achieved by planting trees in high density, training them to specialized structures, and pruning at regular intervals. Bi-axis â¦ They are very appealing to bees because they contain lots of nectar.  The leaves are opposite (rarely alternate) and simple ovoid, typically 2â15 cm long, and usually with a finely serrated margin. Pragmotessara Pierre Each tree should yield 10 lbs of fruit by the 4th year. The plant produces greenish-yellow flowers in spring, followed by pinkish-red fruit with orange-red seeds in autumn. Pragmotropa Pierre Just pick them carefully from the tree and store them in paper or cotton bags or in buckets. Although birds can eat the fruit of this species, all parts of this plant are toxic to humans if eaten in sufficient quantity. European spindle trees also pair well with ornamental grasses. The tall spindle system, with tree densities around 1,000 to 1,500 trees per acre, is highly competitive and productive and has potential for mechanical harvesting and pruning. All the pruning systems ensured high yields. It should be planted in an area of well-drained soil. It tends to have an irregular crown that becomes more rounded as it matures. The leaves are slightly serrated and grow two to four inches long. Euonymous europaeus or the Spindle tree is a native deciduous tree that is capable of growing up to heights of six metres and can live as long as one hundred years. The fruits â¦ Bulletin of the Kanagawa Horticultural Experiment Station, (No. - J. Clements, WI and MN Fruit Grower meetings, January 2011 The name "Spindle Tree" comes from the light, yet hard wood being ideal for making wool spinning spindles. Other names include fusoria, fusanum, ananbeam, shemshad rasmi (Iran), while it may have given its namâ¦ The names âWingedâ and âCorktreeâ are so called because of the wings present on some varieties that develop from the cork cambium, although the reason why these are present is more of a mystery. The yellow-green flowers bloom in May and are not particularly notable. Gray Black Brown ... ananbeam cat tree catwood common spindle tree dogwood gatten tree gatter tree louseberry tree pegwood prick timber prickwood skewerwood see more; Synonyms Euonymus bulgaricus. Facts. Native to Southeast Asia, the pangium edule plant is a tree that develops a large, brown fruit that is often called a football fruit. It is particularly attractive to certain aphids. The tall spindle tree is essentially a 10-foot trunk with small fruiting branches along its length, Robinson said. Two types of spindle tree are used in landscaping -- European spindle and American spindle -- each of which has brilliant crimson foliage in fall and are simultaneously decked out with bizarre red and orange fruit. Spindle Berry, Euonymus europaeus, is a large native bush or shrubby tree that makes an excellent country hedging plant. In you have an acre, you could be producing 4.3 tonnes of fruit by your 4th year! Suitable for small gardens and containers. The fruit, which hangs onto the branches as the foliage drops, opens into fours sections, earning spindle trees the alternative nameâ¦ Birds are attracted to the fruit and tend to spread them freely to the point this plant has become weedy and invasive in some areas. Where overcrowding occurs higher up the tree, offending shoots are usually cut back to leave a stub an inch or so long that will give rise to one or more future fruiting shoots, One way of making a fruit tree crop earlier is to tie down its young shoots to below the horizontal. Fully hardy likes sun or semi shade and well-drained moist soils. Keep the pyramidal shape by pruning harder if necessary your top laterals. However, Euonymus alatus (winged euonymus or burning-bush) is considered an invasive species in the woodlands of the northeastern United States. This is a great shrub for adding year round interest to the garden though be aware that all parts of the tree could cause serious discomfort if ingested. Identified in winter by: the vivid pink fruits which have bright orange seeds. Introducing "One Thing": A New Video Series, The Spruce Gardening & Plant Care Review Board, The Spruce Renovations and Repair Review Board. Modern Apple Training Systems - T. Robinson, Vermont Tree Fruit Growers' Association, February 2006 (PDF) Different Approaches to Tall Spindle Establishment in Apple - R. Perry, cherries.msu.edu; Tall-spindle: how did I get there? It is suitable for hedging up to about 4 metres tall. Media related to Euonymus at Wikimedia Commons, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Euonymus&oldid=992656564, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 6 December 2020, at 12:25. This is â¦ Quadripterygium Tardieu It will grow on practically any soil and tolerates dappled shade. European spindle trees typically have no significant disease or insect problems but can contract anthracnose, crown gall, leaf spot, mildew, twig blight, and scale. Learn tips for creating your most beautiful (and bountiful) garden ever. To produce more abundant displays of fruit, it is recommended that this species is planted near another Euonymus europaeus cultivar for cross-pollination. It makes an excellent winter border for early flowering bulbs. Kalonymus (Beck) Prokh. It is the fruit that follows in the fall that this plant is known for. The strange fruits of the spindle tree should be collected during October when they are pink. The juice is even used in some parts of Africa to create poisoned arrows. Zieslin, N., Pines, N., 1987. While Lamont Fruit Farm hasnât bought a nursery tree since 1992, the tree production approach has changed from producing bench grafts as cheaply as possible to producing trees that are a perfect fit for the farmâs super spindle system after growing through an extra year in the nursery to gain height and promote â¦ This ensures high yield and quality fruit production. Spindlebush or ""knip"" trees have a number of features which help make them far more productive than a typical garden fruit tree: Firstly they are dwarf trees, and stay relatively small (up to 3m tall). Also known as common spindle tree, spindle bush (Euonymus europaeus) is an upright, deciduous shrub that becomes more rounded with maturity. Fruit of the European spindle. This plant has some cultivated varieties. Used in many Indonesian dishes, football fruit is another example of a fruit that you really hope the chef knows what they are doing with, because the large seeds, as well as the leaves of the tree, are â¦ By the Italians it is still called Fusano. Spindle is a spreading deciduous shrub or small tree that has good autumn foliage colour and has small yellow flowers followed by red fruits with orange seeds. Several trees can be planted close together to maximise production in a given space. Given the size of the tree from the nursery, 5 to 6 feet tall, it is already half its mature height at planting time. Eventually, the fruit capsule splits open to reveal a red-orange berry with dark red seeds. In the spring, prune it back to the desired shape and size, then mulch the base of the plant. BE CAREFUL: spindle berries are poisonous and can lead to severe digestive disorders. Spindle fruits are unique and the many different varieties will let you select from a rainbow of colors. The Latin name for Spindle is Fusus, and by some of the old writers this plant is called Fusanum and the Fusoria. The wood of some species was traditionally used for the making of spindles for spinning wool; this use is the origin of the British English name of the shrubs. 26), 111-117. Spindle is a deciduous native tree, and mature trees grow to 9m and can live for more than 100 years. Although not of conservation concern it is an important to a wide range of insect species including magpie, spindle ermine and scorched carpet moths as well as a range of micro moths and holly â¦ Spindle-tree. Climbing spindle-tree is a non-native species with orange fruits that can be dispersed by birds. Euonymus europaeus is a deciduous plant that can be grown as either a large shrub or small tree. The stems are smooth and dark green with dark green elliptical leaves. Slimming the tree top; 5. Stake the single remaining shoot and when it reaches the height at which you want the tree foliage to begin, pinch off all growth below that spot. Vanessa Richins Myers is a seasoned horticulturist, garden writer and educator with 10+ years of experience in the horticulture and gardening space. The European spindle tree, Euonymus europaea, is a deciduous UK-native tree that is most identifiable by its clusters of white flowers that appear in early summer, transforming into vivid pink fruits with bright orange seeds by the autumn, also the time when the leaves turn a spectacular shade of crimson. Euonymus, which is more commonly known as Spindle or Spindle Tree, is a large family of dwarf shrubs, small trees, and creepers which can be deciduous or evergreen.There are 175 species in this family, all of whom are treasured for their attractive foliage, and, in some cases, interesting fruit and seed pods. It comprises about 130 species of deciduous and evergreen shrubs, small trees and lianas. It has also been referred to as “robins' bread” because robins attracted to the seeds will fiercely defend a bush they have claimed as their territory. Be the most striking name for spindle is Fusus, and can be poisonous to humans. [ ]... However, euonymus alatus ( winged euonymus or burning-bush ) is considered an invasive species in the fall when should. The strange fruits of the Kanagawa Horticultural Experiment Station, ( No be dispersed by birds can. Density, training them to specialized structures, and usually with a finely serrated margin called and! 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